# Primary

### Foundations of Subtraction

##### Chapter 1: Revisiting the foundations

LO 1: | Differentiating between numbers, numerals and digits |

LO 2: | Recognising the importance of unit (‘1’) |

LO 3: | Analysing multiple units |

LO 4: | Explaining importance of ‘like unit’ |

LO 5: | Counting and comparing ‘unlike units’? |

LO 6: | Discussing the use of decimal number system |

LO 7: | Exploring ‘value of place’ in everyday living |

LO 8: | Identifying place value and face value of digits |

LO 9: | Visualising numbers in decimal number system |

LO 10 | Interpreting numbers as mixture of place value packets |

LO 11: | Experiencing set in the decimal number system |

##### Chapter 2: Context of subtraction

LO 1: | Recalling arithmetic operations |

LO 2: | Lessons from addition |

LO 3: | Lessons from multiplication |

LO 4: | Discovering the existential need for subtraction operation |

LO 5: | Listing examples of difference in daily life |

LO 6: | Comparing things for difference |

LO 7: | Knowing how to learn subtraction |

LO 8: | Preparing children to learn subtraction |

LO 9: | Elaborating subtraction as more varied, and complex operation |

##### Chapter 3: Introduction to subtraction

LO 1: | Discovering the common threads across ‘subtraction situations’ |

LO 2: | Exploring ‘Takeaway’ situations |

LO 3: | Appreciating separation situations |

LO 4: | Understand comparison situations |

LO 5: | Knowing why 'what is left' is an important number? |

LO 6: | Satisfying if difference is the right term for all subtraction situations |

LO 7: | Expressing subtraction as a simple, universally acceptable narrative |

LO 8: | Being comfortable with ‘–’ |

##### Chapter 4: Macro subtraction process

LO 1: | Visualising subtraction expressions |

LO 2: | Subtracting in pairs |

LO 3: | Subtracting like units |

LO 4: | Subtracting unlike units |

LO 5: | Detailing subtraction of unlike units |

LO 6: | Reasoning subtraction of unlike units |

LO 7: | Revisiting backward counting |

LO 8: | Visualising subtraction as backward skip counting |

##### Chapter 5: Micro subtraction process

LO 1: | Implementing simple subtraction expressions |

LO 2: | Exploring minuend |

LO 3: | Exploring subtrahend |

LO 4: | Exploring difference |

LO 5: | Investigating the difference between 8 – 1 – 1 and 8 – 2 |

LO 6: | Reading 22 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 |

LO 7: | Analysing 30 – 12 – 8 + 10 – 10 + 5 |

LO 8: | Exploring 8 – 3, as comparison of 8 and 3 |

LO 9: | Exploring 8 – 3, as ‘takeaway’ of 3 out of 8 |

LO 10: | Exploring 8 – 3, as ‘separation’ 3 out of 8 |

LO 11: | Appreciating 7 – 0, 0 – 7 |

LO 12: | Detailing 7 - 7 |

LO 13: | Exploring how 7 - 3 is different from 3 - 7 |

LO 14: | Relating multiplication and repeated subtraction |

##### Chapter 6: Macro subtraction operation

LO 1: | Experiencing subtraction operation |

LO 2: | Knowing what borrow represents in subtraction |

LO 3: | Explaining why borrow is always ‘1’ |

LO 4: | Appreciating that borrow can’t be the exact quantity needed |

LO 5: | Exploring the possible values of borrow |

LO 6: | Applying subtraction operation |

##### Chapter 7: Micro subtraction operation

LO 1: | Investigating subtraction of numerals from the right |

LO 2: | Subtracting multiple subtrahends |

LO 3: | Explaining cascade borrow |

LO 4: | Subtracting a bigger number from a smaller number |